Some Important Modern Pioneers: Baldwin, Habermas, Aurobindo, and Maslow

Some Important Modern Pioneers: Baldwin, Habermas, Aurobindo, and Maslow

From Integral Life:

“In this excerpt from Integral Psychology, Ken Wilber honors some of the forerunners to his own model Integral theory and practice: James Mark Baldwin,  Jürgen Habermas, Aurobindo, and Abraham Maslow—intellectual giants upon whose shoulders we all stand….

Some Important Modern Pioneers: Baldwin, Habermas, Aurobindo, and Maslow
From Integral Psychology by Ken Wilber

What I would like to do in this section is introduce several modern pioneers in an integral approach, an approach that, in important ways attempts to be “all-quadrant, all-level.” What all of these pioneers have in common is that they were fully cognizant of the important differentiations of modernity, and therefore they were increasingly aware of the ways in which science could supplement (not replace) religion, spirituality, and psychology. All of them, as we will see, used modern discoveries in the Big Three to elucidate the Great Nest. (All of them, in other words, were offering important elaborations of fig. 1 [below].)
Early modern pioneers of an integral approach abound, such as Goethe, Schelling, Hegel, Fechner, and James. The early pioneers increasingly had access to scientific data on evolution, and thus increasingly understood something about the Great Nest that the premodern pioneers usually did not: it shows development not just in individuals, but in the species; not just ontogenetically, but phylogenetically. In this century, although pioneers also abound-from Steiner to Whitehead to Gebser-I would like particularly to mention James Mark Baldwin, ]iirgen Habermas, Sri Aurobindo, and Abraham Maslow.”

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